MACBETH a story of tragedy ( my favorite)
7:12 PM | Author: NOVEL SURFER
I. Life of the Author

by: bobie cayao



William Shakespeare (baptized 26 April 1564 – died 23 April 1616)[1] was an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, and as the world's preeminent dramatist.[2] He wrote approximately 38 plays and 154 sonnets, as well as a variety of other poems.[3] Already popular in his own lifetime, Shakespeare became more famous after his death and his work was adulated by many prominent cultural figures through the centuries.[4] He is often considered to be England's national poet[5] and is sometimes referred to as the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "The Bard")[6] or the "Swan of Avon".[7]
Orthodox scholars believe Shakespeare produced most of his work between 1586 and 1612, although the exact dates and chronology of the plays attributed to him are under considerable debate. He is counted among the few playwrights who have excelled in both tragedy and comedy; his plays combine popular appeal with complex characterisation, and poetic grandeur with philosophical depth.
Shakespeare's works have been translated into every major living language,[8] and his plays are continually performed all around the world. Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the literature and history of the English-speaking world,[9] and many of his quotations and neologisms have passed into everyday usage in English and other languages. Many have speculated about Shakespeare, including his sexuality, religious affiliation, and the authorship of the works attributed to him.
William Shakespeare (baptised 26 April 1564 – died 23 April 1616)[1] was an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, and as the world's preeminent dramatist.[2] He wrote approximately 38 plays and 154 sonnets, as well as a variety of other poems.[3] Already popular in his own lifetime, Shakespeare became more famous after his death and his work was adulated by many prominent cultural figures through the centuries.[4] He is often considered to be England's national poet[5] and is sometimes referred to as the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "The Bard")[6] or the "Swan of Avon".[7]
Orthodox scholars believe Shakespeare produced most of his work between 1586 and 1612, although the exact dates and chronology of the plays attributed to him are under considerable debate. He is counted among the few playwrights who have excelled in both tragedy and comedy; his plays combine popular appeal with complex characterizations, and poetic grandeur with philosophical depth.
Shakespeare's works have been translated into every major living language,[8] and his plays are continually performed all around the world. Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the literature and history of the English-speaking world,[9] and many of his quotations and neologisms have passed into everyday usage in English and other languages. Many have speculated about Shakespeare, including his sexuality, religious affiliation, and the authorship of the works attributed to him.


II. Classification

The story is belong to tragedy class because the characters in the story encounter different challenges in their life. They come across death at the end of the story. We can easily determine either the story is tragedy or not it’s because of its essence with in the story. The Macbeth story dealing with its real tragedy story, tragedies which change their life to became miserable.
The battle between people to people and kingdom to kingdom according to protect their properties and belongings. Macbeth the main events in his story focus on life and death.
From the beginning to end there are tragedies happen like killing people, death and war focus in this story. Even the very first scene of the story there’s tragedy happen because they found dead body and injured people which came from the battle.
Another tragedy, the death of Lady Macbeth, when she committed suicide, and tragedy happened in Macduff family, his wife and his children killed by murderers hired by Macbeth.
The war between kingdom of Malcolm and Macbeth, and war between macduff and Macbeth which Macbeth died, since he trusted his self and over confidence in his own self that he insist that no one born by women blood can defeat him, but his superstition was lost when macduff told him that he was born through untimely ripped or caesarian. His fears come across with him and he lost the battle.



III. Plot

Summary of MACBETH

ACT I, scene I

The three old witches sister appear out of the storm while thunder and lightning crash above a Scottish moor. They plan to meet Macbeth and confront him after the battle.
Act I, scene II

At military camp near the place of King duncan at forres, King Duncan asks a wounded captain about the news about scot,s battle with the Irish invaders, who led by the rebel MacDonald. This wounded captain who helps Malcolm to escape from Irish. The captain describes for Duncan how Macbeth slew the traitorous Macdonald.
Then Ross enter a Scotis noblemn, he tells the king that the traitorous thane of cawdor has been defeated. Duncan decrees that the thane of Cawdor be put to death and that Macbeth the hero of victorious army and him given Cawdor’s title. And Ross leaves to deliver the news to Macbeth.

Act I, scene III

On the battleground, thunder rolls and the three sister witches appear. One says that she has just come from “killing swine” and another describes the revenge she has planned upon a sailor whose wife refused to share her chestnuts. Suddenly a drum beats, and the third witch cries that Macbeth is coming. Macbeth and Banquo, on their way to the king’s court at Forres, come upon the witches and shrink in horror at the sight of the old women. Banquo asks whether they are mortal, noting that they don’t seem to be “inhabitants o’ the’ earth” .He also wonders whether they are really women, since they seem to have beards like men. The witches hail Macbeth as thane of Glamis and as thane of Cawdor. Macbeth is baffled by this second title, as he has not yet heard of King Duncan’s decision. The witches also declare that Macbeth will be king one day. Stunned and intrigued, Macbeth presses the witches for more information, but they have turned their attention to Banquo, speaking in yet more riddles. They call Banquo “lesser than Macbeth, and greater,” and “not so happy, yet much happier”; then they tell him that he will never be king but that his children will sit upon the throne. Macbeth implores the witches to clarify what they meant by calling him thane of Cawdor, but they vanish into thin air.
Ross tells Macbeth that the king has made him thane of Cawdor, as the former thane is to be executed for treason. Macbeth, amazed that the witches’ prophecy has come true, asks Banquo if he hopes his children will be kings. Banquo replies that devils often tell half-truths in order to win us to their charm.Macbeth ignores his companions and speaks to himself, ruminating upon the possibility that he might one day be king. He wonders whether the reign will simply fall to him or whether he will have to perform a dark deed in order to gain the crown. At last he shakes himself from his reverie and the group departs for Forres. As they leave, Macbeth whispers to Banquo that, at a later time, he would like to speak to him surreptitiously about what has transpired.

Act I, scene IV

At the king’s palace, Duncan hears report that the cawdor died from his son Malcolm during the battle, and the cawdor was died nobly, confessing generously and repenting of his crimes. Macbeth and Banquo enter with Ross and Angus. Duncan thanks the two generals profusely for their heroism in the battle, and they profess their loyalty and gratitude toward Duncan. Duncan announces his intention to name Malcolm the heir to his throne. Macbeth declares his joy but notes to himself that Malcolm now stands between him and the crown. Plans are made for Duncan to dine at Macbeth’s castle that evening, and Macbeth goes on ahead of the royal party to inform his wife of the arrival of the king.

Act I, scene V

Inside Macbeth’s castle, Lady Macbeth reads to herself a letter she has received from Macbeth. The letter announces Macbeth’s promotion to the thaneship of Cawdor and details his meeting with the witches. Lady Macbeth murmurs that she knows Macbeth is ambitious, but fears he is too full of “the milk of human kindness” to take the steps necessary to make himself king She resolves to convince her husband to do whatever is required to seize the crown. A messenger enters and informs Lady Macbeth that the king rides toward the castle, and that Macbeth is on his way as well. As she awaits her husband’s arrival, she delivers a famous speech in which she begs. She resolves to put her natural femininity aside so that she can do the bloody deeds necessary to seize the crown. Macbeth enters, and he and his wife discuss the king’s forthcoming visit. Macbeth tells his wife that Duncan plans to depart the next day, but Lady Macbeth declares that the king will never see tomorrow. She tells her husband to have patience and to leave the plan to her.

ACT I, scene VI

The Scottish lords Duncan and their attendants arrive outside Macbeth’s castle. Duncan praises the castle’s pleasant environment, and he thanks Lady Macbeth, who has emerged to greet him, for her hospitality. She replies that it is her duty to be hospitable since she and her husband owe so much to their king. Duncan then asks to be taken inside to Macbeth, whom he professes to love dearly


Act I, scene VII

As oboes play and servants set a table for the evening’s feast inside the castle, Macbeth paces by him, pondering his idea of assassinating Duncan. He says that the deed would be easy if he could be certain that it would not set in motion a series of terrible consequences. He declares his willingness to risk eternal damnation but realizes that even on earth, bloody actions. He then considers the reasons why he ought not to kill Duncan.
Lady Macbeth enters and tells her husband that the king has dined and that he has been asking for Macbeth. Macbeth declares that he no longer intends to kill Duncan. Lady Macbeth, outraged, calls him a coward and questions his manhood. Asks her what will happen if they fail; she promises that as long as they are bold, they will be successful. Then she tells him her plan: while Duncan sleeps, she will give his chamberlains wine to make them drunk, and then she and Macbeth can slip in and murder Duncan. They will smear the blood of Duncan on the sleeping chamberlains to cast the guilt upon them. Astonished at the brilliance and daring of her plan, Macbeth tells his wife that her “undaunted mettle” makes him hope that she will only give birth to male children .He then agrees to proceed with the murder.

Act II, scene I

While Banquo and his son Fleance walk in the torch-lit hall of Macbeth’s castle. Fleance says that it is after midnight, and his father responds that although he is tired, he wishes to stay awake because his sleep has lately inspired .Macbeth enters, and Banquo is surprised to see him still up. Banquo says that the king is asleep and mentions that he had a dream about the three weird sisters. When Banquo suggests that the witches have revealed “some truth” to Macbeth, Macbeth claims that he has not thought of them at all since their encounter in the woods .He and Banquo agree to discuss the witches’ prophecies at a later time.
Banquo and Fleance leave, and suddenly, in the darkened hall, Macbeth has a vision of a dagger floating in the air before him, its handle pointing toward his hand and its tip aiming him toward Duncan. Macbeth tries to grasp the weapon and fails. He wonders whether what he sees is real or a “dagger of the mind, a false creation Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain. Continuing to gaze upon the dagger, he thinks he sees blood on the blade, then abruptly decides that the vision is just a manifestation of his unease over killing Duncan. The night around him seems thick with horror and witchcraft, but Macbeth stiffens and resolves to do his bloody work. A bell tolls Lady Macbeth’s signal that the chamberlains are asleep—and Macbeth strides toward Duncan’s chamber.


Act II, scene II

While Macbeth departs from the hall, Lady Macbeth enters, remarking on her boldness. She imagines that Macbeth is killing the king even as she speaks. Hearing Macbeth cry out, she worries that the chamberlains have awakened. She says that she cannot understand how Macbeth could fail,she had prepared the daggers for the chamberlains herself. She asserts that she would have killed the king herself then and there, had he not resembled her father as he slept. Macbeth emerges; his hands covered in blood, and say that the deed is done. Badly shaken, he remarks that he heard the chamberlains awake and say their prayers before going back to sleep. When they said “amen,” he tried to say it with them but found that the word stuck in his throat. He adds that as he killed the king, he thought he heard a voice cry out, Macbeth does murder sleep.
Lady Macbeth at first tries to steady her husband, but she becomes angry when she notices that he has forgotten to leave the daggers with the sleeping chamberlains so as to frame them for Duncan’s murder. He refuses to go back into the room, so she takes the daggers into the room herself, saying that she would be ashamed to be as cowardly as Macbeth. As she leaves, Macbeth hears a mysterious knocking. The portentous sound frightens him, and he asks desperately, “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand, As Lady Macbeth reenters the hall, the knocking comes again, and then a third time. She leads her husband back to the bedchamber, where he can wash off the blood. “A little water clears us of this deed,” she tells him. “How easy it is then!”

ACT II, scene III

A porter stumbles through the hallway to answer the knocking, grumbling laughably about the noise and mocking whoever is on the other side of the door. He compares himself to a porter at the gates of hell and asks, if whos here and he name of that person was Beelzebub. Macduff and Lennox enter, and Macduff complains about the porter’s slow response to his knock. The porter says that he was up late carousing and rambles on humorously about the effects of alcohol, which he says provokes red noses, sleepiness, and urination..
He offers to take Macduff to the king. As Macduff enters the king’s chamber, Lennox describes the storms that raged the previous night, asserting that he cannot remember anything like it in all his years. Macduff comes running from the room, shouting that the king has been murdered .Macbeth and Lennox rush in to look, while Lady Macbeth appears and expresses her horror that such a deed could be done under her roof. General chaos ensues as the other nobles and their servants come streaming in.
Macduff seems suspicious of these new deaths, which Macbeth explains by saying that his fury at Duncan’s death was so powerful that he could not restrain himself. Lady Macbeth suddenly faints, and both Macduff and Banquo call for someone to attend to her. Malcolm and Donalbain whisper to each other that they are not safe, since whoever killed their father will probably try to kill them next. Lady Macbeth is taken away, while Banquo and Macbeth rally the lords to meet and discuss the murder. Duncan’s sons resolve to flee the court. Malcolm declares that he will go south to England, and Donalbain will hasten to Ireland.


Act II, scene IV

In thane Ross walks outside the castle with an old man. They discuss the strange and ominous happenings of the past few days: it is daytime, but dark outside; last Tuesday, an owl killed a falcon; and Duncan’s beautiful, well-trained horses behaved wildly and ate one another. Macduff emerges from the castle and tells Ross that Macbeth has been made king by the other lords, and that he now rides to Scone to be crowned. Macduff adds that the chamberlains seem the most likely murderers, and that they may have been paid off by someone to kill Duncan. Suspicion has now fallen on the two princes, Malcolm and Donalbain, because they have fled the scene. Macduff returns to his home at Fife, and Ross departs for Scone to see the new king’s coronation.
Act III, scene I
In the Foress palace, Banquo paces and thinks about the coronation of Macbeth and the prophecies of the weird sisters. The witches foretold that Macbeth would be king and that Banquo’s line would eventually sit on the throne. If the first prophecy came true, Banquo thinks, feeling the emotive of ambition, why not the second? Macbeth enters, attired as king. He is followed by Lady Macbeth, now his queen, and the court. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth ask Banquo to attend the feast they will host that night. Banquo accepts their invitation and says that he plans to go for a ride on his horse for the afternoon. Macbeth mentions that they should discuss the problem of Malcolm and Donalbain. The brothers have fled from Scotland and may be plotting against his crown.
Banquo departs, and Macbeth dismisses his court. He is left alone in the hall with a single servant, to whom he speaks about some men who have come to see him. He muses on the subject of Banquo, reflecting that his old friend is the only man in Scotland whom he fears. The servant reenters with Macbeth’s two visitors. Macbeth reminds the two men, who are murderers he has hired, of a conversation he had with the two men the day before, in which he chronicled the wrongs Banquo had done them in the past. He asks if they are angry and manly enough to take revenge on Banquo.
. Macbeth reminds the murderers that Fleance must be killed along with his father and tells them to wait within the castle for his command.

Act III, scene II

In the castle, Lady Macbeth expresses despair and sends a servant to fetch her husband. Macbeth enters and tells his wife that he too is discontented, saying that his mind is “full of -scorpions” He feels that the business that they began by killing Duncan is not yet complete because there are still threats to the throne that must be eliminated. Macbeth tells his wife that he has planned “a deed of dreadful note” for Banquo and Fleance and urges her to be jovial and kind to Banquo during the evening’s feast, in order to lure their next victim into a false sense of security
Act III, scene III

The two murderers now joined by a third, linger in a wooded park outside the palace. Banquo and Fleance approach on their horses and dismount. They light a torch, and the murderers set upon them. The murderers kill Banquo, who dies urging his son to flee and to avenge his death. One of the murderers extinguishes the torch, and in the darkness Fleance escapes. The murderers leave with Banquo’s body to find Macbeth and tell him what has happened.




Act III, scene IV

It was feast in the castle of macbeth. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth enter as king and queen, followed by their court, which they bid welcome. As Macbeth walks among the company, the first murderer appears at the doorway. Macbeth speaks to him for a moment, learning that Banquo is dead and that Fleance has escaped. The news of Fleance’s escape angers Macbeth,if only Fleance had died, he muses; his throne would have been secure.
Macbeth mutters that “blood will have blood” and tells Lady Macbeth that he has heard from a servant-spy that Macduff intends to keep away from court, behavior that verges on treason He says that he will visit the witches again tomorrow in the hopes of learning more about the future and about who may be plotting against him. He resolves to do whatever is necessary to keep his throne.

Act III, scene V

The witches meet with Hecate upon the storm heath, the goddess of witchcraft. Hecate scolds them for meddling in the business of Macbeth without consulting her but declares that she will take over as supervisor of the mischief. She says that when Macbeth comes the next day, as they know he will, they must summon visions and spirits whose messages will fill him with a false sense of security and “draw him on to his confusion” Hecate disappear, and the witches go to prepare their charms.


Act III, scene VI

In Scotland, during that darkness Lennox walks with another lord, discussing what has happened to the kingdom. Banquo’s murder has been officially blamed on Fleance, who has fled. Nevertheless, both men suspect Macbeth, whom they call a “tyrant,” in the murders of Duncan and Banquo. The lord tells Lennox that Macduff has gone to England, where he will join Malcolm in pleading with England’s King Edward for aid. News of these plots has prompted Macbeth to prepare for war. Lennox and the lord express their hope that Malcolm and Macduff will be successful and that their actions can save Scotland from Macbeth
Act IV, scene I
The 3v witches appear on stage in a dark cavern and hey start hier hisses and spits. They circle the cauldron, chanting spells and adding bizarre ingredients to their stew. Hecate materializes and compliments the witches on their work. Macbethj ask favor to he witches to show his prediciton. To answer his questions, they summon horrible apparitions, each of which offers a prediction to allay Macbeth’s fears. First, a floating head warns him to beware Macduff; Macbeth says that he has already guessed as much. Then a bloody child appears and tells him that “none of woman born / shall harm Macbeth. Next, a crowned child holding a tree tells him that he is safe until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill. Finally, a procession of eight crowned kings walks by, the last carrying a mirror.
Banquo’s ghost walks at the end of the line. Macbeth demands to know the meaning of this final vision, but the witches perform a mad dance and then vanish. Lennox enters and tells Macbeth that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth resolves to send murderers to capture Macduff’s castle and to kill Macduff’s wife and children.

Summary: Act IV, scene ii

At Macduff’s castle, Lady Macduff accosts Ross, demanding to know why her husband has fled. She feels betrayed. Ross insists that she trust her husband’s judgment and then regretfully departs. Once he is gone, Lady Macduff tells her son that his father is dead, but the little boy perceptively argues that he is not. Suddenly, a messenger hurries in, warning Lady Macduff that she is in danger and urging her to flee. Lady Macduff protests, arguing that she has done no wrong. A group of murderers then enters. When one of them denounces Macduff, Macduff’s son calls the murderer a liar, and the murderer stabs him. Lady Macduff turns and runs, and the pack of killers chases after her.


Act IV, scene VIII

Outside King Edward’s palace, Malcolm speaks with Macduff, telling him that he does not trust him since he has left his family in Scotland and may be secretly working for Macbeth. To determine whether Macduff is trustworthy, Malcolm rambles on about his own vices. He admits that he wonders whether he is fit to be king, since he claims to be lustful, greedy, and violent. At first, Macduff politely disagrees with his future king, but eventually Macduff cannot keep himself from crying out, “O Scotland, Scotland!” (IV.iii.101). Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland leads him to agree that Malcolm is not fit to govern Scotland and perhaps not even to live. In giving voice to his disparagement, Macduff has passed Malcolm’s test of loyalty. Malcolm then retracts the lies he has put forth about his supposed shortcomings and embraces Macduff as an ally. A doctor appears briefly and mentions that a “crew of wretched souls” waits for King Edward so they may be cured (IV.iii.142). When the doctor leaves, Malcolm explains to Macduff that King Edward has a miraculous power to cure disease.
Ross enters. THe breaking down, Ross confesses to Macduff that Macbeth has murdered his wife and children. Macduff is crushed with grief. Malcolm urges him to turn his grief to anger, and Macduff assures him that he will inflict revenge upon Macbeth

At night, in the king’s palace at Dunsinane, a doctor and a gentlewoman discuss Lady Macbeth’s strange habit of sleepwalking. Suddenly, Lady Macbeth enters in a trance with a candle in her hand. Bemoaning the murders of Lady Macduff and Banquo, she seems to see blood on her hands and claims that nothing will ever wash it off. She leaves, and the doctor and gentlewoman marvel at her descent into madness.

Summary: Act V, scene ii

The group of Scottish lords discusses he military sinuation.
Outside the castle, a group of Scottish lords discusses the military situation: the English army approaches, led by Malcolm, and the Scottish army will meet them near Birnam Wood, apparently to join forces with them. The “tyrant,” as Lennox and the other lords call Macbeth, has fortified Dunsinane Castle and is making his military preparations in a mad rag.

Act V, scene III

Macbeth strides into the hall of Dunsinane with the doctor and his attendants, boasting proudly that he has nothing to fear from the English army or from Malcolm, since “none of woman born” can harm him and since he will rule securely “[t]ill Birnam Wood remove to Dunsinane”. He calls his servant Seyton, who confirms that an army of ten thousand Englishmen approaches the castle. Macbeth insists upon wearing his armor, though the battle is still some time off. The doctor tells the king that Lady Macbeth is kept from rest by “thick-coming fancies,” and Macbeth orders him to cure her of her delusions.

Act V, scene IV

In the country near Birnam Wood, Malcolm talks with the English lord Siward and his officers about Macbeth’s plan to defend the fortified castle. They decide that each soldier should cut down a bough of the forest and carry it in front of him as they march to the castle, thereby disguising their numbers.

Act V, scene VI

He order to hang the banner in his castle so that the enemy will see that bravery of his belongings . A woman’s cry is heard, and Seyton appears to tell Macbeth that the queen is dead. Shocked, Macbeth speaks numbly about the passage of time and declares famously that life is “a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, / Signifying nothingA messenger enters with astonishing news: the trees of Birnam Wood are advancing toward Dunsinane. Enraged and terrified, Macbeth recalls the prophecy that said he could not die till Birnam Wood moved to Dunsinane. Resignedly, he declares that he is tired of the sun and that at least he will die fighting.

Act V, scene VI

Outside the castle, the battle commences. Malcolm orders the English soldiers to throw down their boughs and draw their swords.

Act V, scene VII

He killed Lord Siwards son because no one born by woman blood can defeat him, he confident for the charm h have.

Act V, scene VIII

Macduff emerges and searches the chaos frantically for Macbeth, whom he longs to cut down personally. He dives again into the battle.

Act V, scene IX

Malcolm and Siward emerge and enter the castle.

Act V, scene X

While they are fighting Macbeth insist to Macduff that no one born by women blood can defeat him, he was wrong because Mac duff was born untimely ripped, and Macbeth felt fear in his heart but he tell Macduff that he will continue o the end of his life.

Act V, scene XI

Malcolm and Siward walk together in the castle, which they have now effectively captured. Ross tells Siward that his son is dead. Macduff emerges with Macbeth’s head in his hand and proclaims Malcolm king of Scotland. Malcolm declares that all his thanes will be made earls, according to the English system of peerage. They will be the first such lords in Scottish history. Cursing Macbeth and his “fiend-like” queen, Malcolm calls all those around him his friends and invites them all to see him crowned at Scone .


IV. Settings

Macbeth was most likely written in 1606, early in the reign of James I, who had been James VI of Scotland before he succeeded to the English throne in 1603. James was a patron of Shakespeare’s acting company, and of all the plays Shakespeare wrote under James’s reign, Macbeth most clearly reflects the playwright’s close relationship with the sovereign. In focusing on Macbeth, a figure from Scottish history, Shakespeare paid homage to his king’s Scottish lineage. Additionally, the witches’ prophecy that Banquo will found a line of kings is a clear nod to James’s family’s claim to have descended from the historical Banquo. In a larger sense, the theme of bad versus good kingship, embodied by Macbeth and Duncan, respectively, would have resonated at the royal court, where James was busy developing his English version of the theory of divine right.

The main settings in the story are in Various locations in Scotland and England. The story start at military camp near the palace of Foress, it is happen first part of he story where King Duncan ask he wounded captain if what happened to he battle of scots and irish invaders. Another place of setting is the palace of Duncan where he hears reports about the execution from his son malcom. At Dunsinane doctor and a gentlewoman discuss Lady Macbeth’s strange habit of sleepwalking, where also the battle between macduff and Macbeh happened. Another settings in the country near Birnam Wood where Malcolm talks with the English lord Siward and his officers about Macbeth’s plan to defend the fortified castle

V. Structure

Macbeth was the principal character in the story, he wish to accomplish his goal to be a king, and he will follow he prediction of witches, for me this motive is called he exciting force of he tragedy because of what he did the tragedy stars.
conflicts - The struggle within Macbeth between his ambition and his sense of right and wrong; the struggle between the murderous evil represented by Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and the best interests of the nation, represented by Malcolm and Macduff
rising action - Macbeth and Banquo’s encounter with the witches initiates both conflicts; Lady Macbeth’s speeches goad Macbeth into murdering Duncan and seizing the crown.
climax - When Macbeth’s murder of Duncan in Act II represents the point of no return, after which Macbeth is forced to continue butchering his subjects to avoid the consequences of his crime.
falling action - When Macbeth’s increasingly brutal murders (of Duncan’s servants, Banquo, Lady Macduff and her son); Macbeth’s second meeting with the witches; Macbeth’s final confrontation with Macduff and the opposing armies


VI. Character

Main Characters:

· Macbeth – he is Ambitious in Act III scene I ,he asked for prediction from witches because of his ambitions to be the king leads him to dead. He killed those people who are the hindrance in his life and will give him problem to reach his goal. He superstitious he believe that he will not defeated because of prediction of witches , he is cruel and treacherous, Imaginative and Poetic he poetic and imaginative can be found in act 1 and 5, according to his soliloquy he became imaginative and poetic. And devoted to his wife Lady Macbeth, he is devoted to his wife because he loves his wife so much; when Macbeth got sick he is very concerned to her.

Macbeth was the central character in the story, the story was focus on him and it’s obviously that his name was entitled in the story. He is loyal to his people and he knew how to be with them. He made his best for his people and for his kingdom he character associate with him being brave king.
He has courage to fight until the end. Another group of character that has a big contribution in the story are the witches. Because without them the story will not made, the witches where the prediction happened in Macbeth life which leads him to encourage him not to afraid he enemy. By the prediction of witches Macbeth became strong and more confidents to his self. Another character is Lady Macbeth which accompanied by Macbeth to made a plan and kill Banquo, and there are some character mentioned where they help the main character to overcome his problems.
The characters distinguished in the story well even those who are not major characters; they had given the name and role in the story. All character mentioned in he story has a great contribution without character in he story It useless.
For me I can be real in life he characters, maybe during time, I won’t say that I believe them as a real people but there is a possibility that during their time there are people like them.
The story is not true because it is not based on real story, all events and a happening in the story was made through the imagination of an author.
In the story here are character that we can call humorous, one of them is Macbeth the main character in the story. He is Humorous because he became he main highlights in the story. For what he did he killed the king and slaying people he is became humorous. this happened because of prediction of witches to him .

· Lady Macbeth – she is basically kind and gentle for being loyal to his husband and ready to help him. She is also devoted to her husband Macbeth she is always with in Macbeth side, she help Macbeth for his plan to kill banquo and she always ready to die for her husband. Lady Macbeth manipulates her husband with remarkable effectiveness, overriding all his objections; when he hesitates to murder, she repeatedly questions his manhood until he feels that he must commit murder to prove himself


· Duncan-he is benevolent and grateful because is the model of a virtuous, benevolent, and farsighted ruler, His death symbolizes the destruction of an order in Scotland that can be restored only when Duncan’s line, in the person of Malcolm, once more occupies the throne. Easily deceive and thoughtful to his children because he is always love his children and time will come he will not see his children again still he continue to overcome the problems.. His being benevolent can be found in Act 1 and act 2.
· Macduff - A Scottish nobleman hostile to Macbeth’s kingship from the start. He eventually becomes a leader of the crusade to unseat Macbeth. The crusade’s mission is to place the rightful king, Malcolm, on the throne, but Macduff also desires vengeance for Macbeth’s murder of Macduff’s wife and young son.
· Malcolm - The son of Duncan, whose restoration to the throne signals Scotland’s return to order following Macbeth’s reign of terror. Malcolm becomes a serious challenge to Macbeth with Macduff’s aid (and the support of England). Prior to this, he appears weak and uncertain of his own power, as when he and Donalbain flee Scotland after their father’s murder.

VI. Style

In the story Macbeth the language used is clearly stated by narrator, some of words are no really difficult to understand because every word has its own meaning written below the original copy of Macbeth story, we the reader can easily understand the story we read because it written into dialogue style and words are no difficult o understand.
By reading this story we need time o finish the entire story according to get and understand the beauty of this story. I can say that there are some words which are no longer used now, but still the thoughts are easily and completely understood.
There are some words that are no familiar to us today or cannot be found at any modern novel or short story. Examples of these words are:
Glames, cawdor, thane, owed, interim, beguile, hermits, Martlet, husbandry,undeviulged pretense and Minions. This are the id never encounter today. i This words has its own meaning and I guess this words are old English and It use by Shakespeare for his work showing that he his woks was made original by him.



VI. Memory Passage

Favorite Soliloquy
“Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, creeps in this petty pace from day to day,
To the last syllable of recorded time and all our yesterday have lighted fools
The way to dusty death, out, out, brief candle life’s but a walking shadow; poor player
That struts and frets; his hour upon the stage and hen is heard no more. It is a tale told
By and idiot, full of sound and fury signifying noting “

This soliloquy told by Macbeth in act V scene 5, for me his soliloquy is the best because of the meaning in every words and lines. It has a moral value to each everyone.
This soliloquy is about the meaning of life, how life will last and long in this world.
Macbeth told this soliloquy when Lady Macbeth kill her self by committed suicide. Macbeth describe life is like candle which lighted and melt and is compared to life because life won’t stay longer in this world.
While we lighted by our freedom and happiness here will be sadness at he other side of it. Life also compare to a walking shadow because life is no infinite it has limitation and end. Life is like a shadow, we can see he shadow through the lights reflect on it. Our life depends on our freedom and our victory against problems and challenges in life
Light is our fortune our courage and freedom and the shadow represent to death. Our life also compare o a poor player according to Macbeth, a poor player who play his role ones on a stage. Our life is only one and I will not comeback when I lost.

VII. Critical Opinion

Shakespeare is very talented poets; he made the story of Macbeth with his own knowledge and skill. Macbeth is very interesting tragedy story. It is sort of entertainment and it help us to realize and understand he past incident. We can understand how he people defend their belongings against their enemies and how king protect his people with in his territory. How they fought kingdom to kingdom. And we learned how people slay their enemies.
This story also dealing us some moral lessons which help in our life and important values which help us to improve our self. Shakespeare became well known because of his works. One of his works who made him popular is Macbeth. This story published in any books also posed at any internet site so hat we may bale to read his works.
The story Macbeth is very real to its essence it shows the real tragedy with in he story. There is no other high lighted genre for this story except the tragedy. This story is not Shakespeare most complex play but it is certainly one of his most powerful and emotionally intense.
It is also dealing us how brave the people during time of Macbeth and how they became a hero to protect their properties. And also the story highlighted the brave Scottish general (Macbeth). In general Macbeth story giving us more information on how they live and died as a warrior and as a king during their time.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark twain
7:10 PM | Author: NOVEL SURFER

Author


Mark Twain was born Langhorne Clemens in 183, when he was 4 years old hey move to Hannibal, Missouri on h Mississipi river where he grew up and develop his personality and learned to manage I own self. When he was twelve years old his fathers was gone and leave him forever in short his father was died. At age of 12 he began his career, he apprenticed to a printer and he became a reporter, writer and entertainer humorous sketches. 1857 t age of 22 he became a river – boat pilot. And he took his name Mark Twain at this experienced. After the civil war he went back to journalism and publishes his own book. His first story was published in 1865. His works are “the adventures of Tom Sawyer “(1876) this was his first work. 1883 he published another story “Life on Mississipi” this is no a novel but a superbly evocation memoir, next he wrote “A Connectint Yankee at King Arthur Court (1889). “The Adventure of Huckle berry Finn” (1884) it was known as his master piece and one of world great book. 1910 when Mark Twain died .

Characters:
MAJOR CHARCTERS:


Huck Finn - The leading role of the novel and the son of the town drunk. He is about 12 years old. The main character in the story which encountered different situation during his adventure.
Jim - The runaway slave of Miss Watson’s, whom Huck helps to gain freedom. The companion of Hucks during their adventure
Widow Douglas - Huck’s guardian who adopts him and wants to civilize him.
Pap - Huck’s father who comes back to town when he learns that his son has become rich. He want to get his back from Widow Douglas and Miss Watson.
Tom Sawyer - A friend of Huck who is about his same age. The leader and founder of band of robbery which named Tom Sawyer Gang.
Miss Watson - Widow Douglas’ sister, who tutors Huck.
The Duke and the Dauphin - Two friends who go about fooling people and relieving them of their money. They join Huck and Jim on the raft.
MINOR CHARACTERS
Ben Rogers - A friend of Huck’s, who is also a part of Tom Sawyer’s gang.
Joe Harper - Another friend of Huck’s.
Judge Thatcher - A judge in St. Petersburg and the custodian of Huck’s money.
The Grangerfords and the Shephardsons - Two feuding families with whom Huck gets involved.
Mrs. Judith Loftus - The new woman in St. Petersburg from whom Huck learns that people are planning to come and explore Jackson’s Island.
Bill, Packard, and Turner - The three thieves that Jim and Huck find in a houseboat.
Boggs - A drunk in a small Arkansas town who gets killed in broad daylight.
Col. Sherburn - The man who kills Boggs.
Peter Wilks - The man who dies in Pikesville, leaving behind a plantation for his three nieces.
Mary Jane, Susan, and Joanna - The three Wilks’ girls whom the Duke and the Dauphin almost succeed in cheating.
William and Harvey - The two heirs to the Wilks farm who arrive after the funeral.
Dr. Robinson - The first man to see through the Duke and the Dauphin’s disguise and suspect them to be frauds.
Levi Bell - The lawyer with whom Dr. Robinson conducts the investigation to find out the real heirs.
Rev. Hobson - The preacher who performs the funeral service of Peter Wilks.
The Phelps - The family which bought Jim from the king. They also happen to be Tom Sawyer’s aunt and uncle.


Settings of the story:


First the setting was in in America. And some parts of the story was set in St. Petersburg,Missouri where Huck’s was adopt by Widow Douglas and Miss Watson who tried to civilize him and teach him about good behaviors. And he study how to write and he became educated and religious person and he meet friends like Tom Swayer, Ben Rogers and some other young men who join their band before. There are also parts in the story which happened in Mississippi River, where Huck’s encounter different kinds of difficulties when he tried o escape from his father and his begin with his adventure. They continue travel to the state of north where Huck’s meet Jim and they continue for their adventure. They also had been in Arkansas which they pretending to be a king and duke so that people may not know about them.

Plot:


Tom Swayer and Huckle berry Finn are the main character in the story. They are best of friends, the story begin when they became rich because they found money that the robbery hid inside the cave. And it made them became rich and they had a new life and new challenge.
Tom Swayer starts to make a band of robbers and recruit members to join their band. Huck’s Finn wants to join the band but in one condition, he need to go back to Widow Douglas who adopt him and take care of him, give him foods, shelter and call him little lost lamb. Miss Watson sister of Widow Douglas teach him how to behave like a formal person. Huck’s Finn can join the band when someone hold him as his guardian, the group of this young man which well be the member of Tom Swayer band was gone to a secret place where they will have their meeting and talk bout their new band of robbery. Tom Swayer is the founder of this band of robbery and he named it “Tom Swayer Gang”. If everyone who wants to join must have to take an oath and write his name in blood. And all are welling to his rule and requirements. The band was very strict when them member will going to make bad against the band will have punishable by death, either cut his throat or kill his family.
Huck’s Finn don’t have family so he other member of the band asked if Huck’s Finn will going to join he don’t have family, he don’t have exception for any punishments. So he must have family according to him to join the band.
Their mission is to kill people and rob all things they like. But plan and mission didn’t accomplish, and all is just pretending. After a month Huck’s Finn resigned from his band and also some men didn’t stay at the band. Maybe they realized that the can do such things at their age.

Huckle berry Finn was introduce to Widow Douglas and civilized him and each him about good behaviors. Huck’s Finn didn’t see his father and mother for a long time, but his father appeared when he knew that Huck’s Finn became now rich. He was afraid when he saw his father; his father was about 50 years old when they last meet. His father an intention is to get the money of Huckle berry Finn because his father knew about is richness. But the money of Huck’s Finn was taken by Judge Thatchers and put it in the bank with interest. Finn done hold he money anymore but he have a right to budget the money he have, when his father came to his path his father want to take all the money of Huckle berry but he don’t have money to give to his father and she explain it to him, but his father don’t believe him and he find the judge and ask about it. And they fight their rights inside the hall of justice. But since the father always have the right for his son Widow Douglas and Miss Watson was lost the case.
Huck’s father became bad and bad, always drunk and abuse pople in the town and got jail. Huck’s situation became worst when his father took him, his father didn’t give him freedom, his father didn’t care of him and he did to lock his son inside the room. Huck’s stop schooling because his father didn’t want him to go to school in short his father abused him. But sometimes Hucks escaped from his father hands and continue to go to school and study.
Huckleberry Finn was got chanced to escape when his father request him to catch fish and canon, a king wood or logs, when his father out of his sight and didn’t look at him, he escape and hide go into thick bushes, vines and tress. His adventure escaping from his father is very ridiculous; he did anything just to escape from his father hands. During his adventure he encountered different people, accidentally Huck’s meet Jim ate place where I hide. Jim also escape from Miss Watson, he is slave of Widow Douglas and Miss Watson. Jim and Huck’s is now companion for their adventure to find their path away from dark world.
They encounter different trials during their adventure, starvation, no water, no foods but they are striving to fight the trials and overcome with it. Huck’s don’t have enough sleep and it became dangerous when no people help him. But now Huck’s have companion on his adventure which is Jim.
They continue for their adventure and find the right path to survive. They use lumber, logs to across the river and go to other side of the river. They found a house not so far from their place and they found dead body inside of the house. And the ask themselves why there is dead body. Jim what to study who killed that man but Huck,s didn’t want hear about it because it is bad luck. And Jim respect and follow what Hucks said.
They continue to walk and find their way going to their destination, they encounter different situations where their must be in danger, they encounter group of gang in town and they witness how this gangster killed and terrorized people and stole everything they want, but Jim and Huck hid their self from them and they continue watching how they worked.

Huck and Jim encounter people who running for their lives and they did is just pretending as what they did before just to save their life. They pretending that they are the king and duke which lost their kingdom and travel along way from their home.

Analysis


The story is very colorful, full of essence and touches every human’s heart, the writer or the author of this story gave his effort just to fulfill the story and makes it more interesting. The author wrote and made this story based on real life, the purpose is to give more lessons in our life and awaken our mind. The whole story was made simple and it is easy to understand when you read it carefully and give more time to analyze every lines and words in the story. Mark Twain is the only author of this story “the adventures of Huckleberry Finn” which he made it successfully through his knowledge and mind. He made different story and became the best seller. The Adventures of Huckleberry finn became popular during 18th century. The story is composed of different personalities which the characters give life to the story. The protagonist is the one who tell or narrate the whole story and he is involved at any situation happening in the story. When we read the line or the paragraph in this book there are words that are not easy to understand when you just look at it without analyzing the whole paragraph, author uses number of dialects and there are some words looks unfamiliar. The author used words which are not easy to understand or it has deep meaning, but it gives essence to the whole story. The story also contains some lines which include some words that cannot appropriate to the story, like using words “by and by” in every chapter. The reader may ask what the meanings of those words are. But this words re just part of the making and building sentences which gives the story more colorful.

SALAMNKA ( phillipine litterature)
5:00 PM | Author: NOVEL SURFER
hmmm .. . read the whole story guys, its really interesting. . .ok hers it is a little summary and noverl criticism.

SALAMANCA
by; Dean Francis Alfar

SeTtInG:

The primary setting of Salamanca was done at Tagbaoran which is located at the very heart of Palawan and is one of the Islands in Mindanao. It was also the location where Gaudencio Rivera firs laid eyes on Jacinta Cordova.

It was still in Tagbaoran where Jacinta stayed and was left alone by Gaudencio for he needed to return to Manila to pursue his passion, and that is to write. This was also another scene wherein Gaudencio got into his own pocket, a Sheepskin of Iowa, which is allowing or granting him to fly to the United States of America to be employed and pursue his work as a writer.

Time came when Gaudencio realized to get back to Jacinta in Palawan and engender a child out of their love. Then they translocated to Manila where Jacinta met all the relatives and family members of Gaudencio, both primary and extended family members. And thus, it was the place where she disbursed her life until old age then breathed her last in a humble hamlet of flowers spurting in the garden.

PlOt:

It was in Los Angeles, California when a earthquake occurred, then Gaudencio foretold the happiest story of the most lovely maiden in Tagbaoran ( a place in Palawan) who lived in a glasshouse to Marco Drilon.
He translocated to Tagbaoran, thinking that we would be able to scout for employment in that place. Gaudencio first came upon Herminia Cruz who advised him that the small hamlet was not a good medium for employment for a lad like him. In that place, they already had a mentor and a Baptist missioner, Mrs. Helen Brown who came from Kensington, Pennsylvania.

Furthermore, Jacinta Cordova, who was exquisitely a firm connoisseur of modesty, and has done the multitude of things she could to place herself in a demeanor that was further than reproof, since the parapet of the dwelling she stayed in were apparent.

She was exceedingly gorgeous at 12, which was the cause why people congested in giving birth and the primary rationale on why Mrs. Brown lost some of her students. Gaudencio didn’t compensate a good deal of interest about this gorgeous lady, because his main motive was to scout for employment. When time came that he realized that there was no other means of employment, he resoluted to labor manually instead of being a mentor so as to live and provide food for him. This is where he meets Cesar Abalos, one of the laborers of his preceding occupation. When he translocated to the Don Salazar Copra Factory, he at last set a foremost foretaste at the most gorgeous lady that lived in Tagbaoran.

Upon the meeting of their eyes, (which was the reflection of their inevitable souls) both got a rush that was peculiar for heir hearts desire.
He fell in love with Jacinta upon walking down at the river. Love at first sight was from the part of Gaudencio. And Gaudencio, expects much from the part of Jacinta and she came to rush realizations that she has made strong faults for God by not doing his chase to stay chaste. Three months came and Gaudencio wrote expressions of love on pieces of paper and placed it every evening in the glasshouse with the rationale that Jacinta would be able to read he love quotes in the morning upon waking up.

But it was placed to an end when a natural obstruction occurred. He was frightened for there were cadavers floating around and the rooftops were thrown afar by the servants of Aelous, and houses where gushed away by the flood. Cesar went to Mrs. Brown and they proceeded to Gaudencio jointly with Shiro, the mongrel.

Then Gaudencio fell caused by the gushing of the water and the blowind of the winds. After the obstruction ended, Gaudencio was nowhere to be found and Apolinaria Vergara was not in the glass house already. Gaudencio appeared three days after his fall, and finally Gaudencio asks for Jacinta’s hand in wedlock.

After wedlock, they were the gossip of the town, but Gaudencio deserted her, for 11 days to return to Manila to find a stable occupation as a writer and Cesar Abalos went with him. Gaudencio didn’t discern that Cesar had a huge crush on him.
When Gaudencio was in manila, he had some award-winning novelties about the stories that he wrote. Moreover, in Tagbaoran, Jacinta met Bau Long Hyunh, a Vietnamese Diaspora and admirer and the one who saved Carlito’s life the son of Lucio Abalos and Filomena from drowning in the water.

Years passed, Gaudencio and Cesar had a major fight that made Cesar decide to go back to Tagbaoran, and a small number of years later he accepted the invitation to be a writer in Iowa, somewhere part of USA and joined the academe.

When Cesar got back, he was warmly greeted and there he told Jacinta on what really had happened. But all that Jacinta did was to move on with her life. Time passed when Gaudencio came to his senses how much he misses her wife and later decided to go back to Tagbaoran and engender a child.

Jacinta agreed in barter for her autonomy from their wedlock, so he went on with Gaudencio leaving the poor Bau Long Hyunh. They translocated to Manila and met Gaudencio’s mother, Pacifica Dolores Rivera and the primary and extended family relative of her beloved half of her life.

Jacinta got to be acquainted with Maria Elena Francisco upon staying at Gaudencio’s mother. When Jacinta was filled with the Holy Spirit in her womb, she gave birth to twins. But alas, the other child breathed her last even without a chance of knowing him. It remained vague to her, only when Gaudencio Antonio Rivera lived. After a few harvests, she was still writing to Intang and stayed quiet and tranquil. Jacinta bore their youngest gift from God, Emmanuel Crisanto. Who breathed his last from an upheaval at such a juvenile age. Some dead driver crashed into him while they where buying some sago.

Gaudencio and Jacinta were very much saddened with Washington Yu, who was his godfather. The entire family mourned for him, for this son has a gift of art, and he was so willing to hear the stories of her mother way back in Tagbaoran. Yet, a few more harvests came to pass and Jacinta gave her entire life for the welfare of her family and garden. She still continued writing to Filomena, she stayed quiet and still through out his days.

Antonio got married to Irene Ledesma, his girlfriend for 3 harvests and soon they already had gifts of God, their Children. Gaudencio suddenly became optically-challenged while he was writing and as for Jacinta, at that night she saw her son Emmanuel, she already knew that he is going to be with his son already. What she did was to write her last to letters the one and only friend, Filomena.

Pleading that it could be her parting letter and to Guadencio with the motive that all through these years, he knows how much she loves him. The break of day arrived and she called everyone to eat dinner at her house. She called Maria Elena and Washington Yu and his son. She asked his son to send the letter to Filomena and the other one to interpret it to Gaudencio.
When she sat subsequently to Gaudencio, she kissed him deeply and then she breathed her last. All and sundry in the dwelling was lamenting, even Gaudencio who was optically-challenged shed a tear for her dearly loved consort. The first one to discern the dwelling is Maria Elena Francisco-Yu, it all twisted into a glasshouse.

cHaRaCtErS:

Gaudencio Rivera- the lead actor, a splendid writer who wants to engender a child
with his phenomenal sexuality and is the consort of Jacinta.
Jacinta Cordova- the gorgeous lady from the hamlet of Tagbaoran, and the wife of
Gaudencio who has a dwelling that is a glass house, who was
chaste lover of Bau Long Hyunh before wedlock.
Cesar Abalos- he has a massive affection on Gaudencio and his friend.
Filomena Abalos- mother of Carlos/Carlito Abalos, wife of Lucio Abalos,
Apolinaria Vergara- Jacinta’s aunt and died through the storm, and has strong
faith in God.
Mrs. Helen Brown- acted as a mentor in Tagbaoran, who came from Kensington
Pennsylvania.
Shiro- the three legged mongrel.
Bau Long Huynh-a Vietnamese Diaspora and fell in love with Jacinta.
Maria Elena Francisco-Yu- married to Washington Yu.
Washington Yu- godfather of Emmanuel Crisanto and married to
Maria Elena Francisco.
Isabel Cortez-a writer and had an affair with Gaudencio while he was still
in Manila.
Lucio Abalos- Cesar Abalos ‘uncle, father of Carlito and husband of
Filomena Cruz.
Gilberta Abalos Salazar- Cesar’s sister and Ricardo Salazar’s wife.
Ricardo Salazar- niece of Don Salazar, husband of Gilberta Abalos.
Carlos/Carlito Abalos- he was foretold by Jacinta to stay away from the
water coz it might be the one to end up his life.
Captain Hideo Izuma- the last undiscovered Japanese straggler and loyal servant
of Emperor Hirohito.
G.I. Alejandro-one of the captive officers of the Hukbalahap movement.
Rommel Rodriguez- the neighbor of Mrs. Brown, owner of a butterfly farm.

The Rivera Family
Pacifica Dolores Rivera- mother of Gaudencio Rivera.
Emilio and Rolando- Older brothers of Gaudencio.
Gaudencio Lorenzo Rivera (+)-son of Gaudencio and Jacinta, died in a
heart failure.
Gaudencio Antonio Rivera- son of Gaudencio and Jacinta.
Emmanuel Crisanto Rivera- second son of Gaudencio and Jacinta.
Irene Ledesma Rivera- Antonio’s girlfriend for 3 years and the wife of
Antonio Rivera.
Jennifer and Jemina Ledesma Rivera the first born twins in Antonio and Irene.
Jacinta Ledesma Rivera- the favorite granddaughter of Jacinta.
Justine Ledesma Rivera and Joanna Ledesma Rivera- the fourth and the fifth baby
of Irene and Antonio Rivera, they were next to Jacinta.
Julio Ledesma Rivera- the last baby of Irene Ledesma and Antonio.

ThEmE:

The story Salamanca can be considered as diverse in emotional appeal. It stirs the emotion too much based on the different moods found in the story. A prodigious sexuality mixed with mishaps and happiness can be considered diverse in some ways. The themes are love, sexual desire, happiness, sadness, loyalty and trust by the characters in the story.

The above mentioned themes have helped so much in the clearer interpretation of the story by the readers. The themes present made the vague picture clear. The different themes aides in striking the deep recesses of the human emotion by it emotional appeal which is interpretative literature.

Analysis:
The story did strike me most because of its diversity in the roles of the different characters found in the chapters. The first part was a funny scene in the story due to the realizations of Gaudencio of his abnormal sexuality. As the story unfolds through the different chapters, I realized that a lot of scenes were very striking for me because I can relate it with my real life situation as a human being and also a writer in my respect.

The last part of the story was very striking which moved me to tears due to the lines which seemed so touching for me. It can be very much realized from families all over the world whose family members have lost their ways and can make use of this story as a medium of patching up the loopholes in the basic unit of the society, the family.

AuThOr:

Dean Francis Alfar is a superb writer respect to his splendid literary works which are full of art, beauty and power of words. Dean Francis Alfar’s plays have been performed in venues across the country, while his articles and fiction have been published both locally and abroad, most recently in Strange Horizons, Rabid Transit and The Year’s Best Fantasy and Horror.

It’s in that Dean has won the prestigious Grand Prize for Novel, which is only handed out every four years, and he is incredibly grateful and humbled by the company of other novel winners. “I actually feel like one of my characters, living in a magic realist scenario. It’s surreal in a good way.” He wrote Salamanca as part of National Novel Writing Month, where authors all over the world would attempt to complete a novel in a month’s time. Dean wrote after work every day last November and the product was Salamanca, which he describes as revolving around “the love story of two people, beginning in Palawan in the 1950s and ending 50 years later in Manila.” Up next for the busy Dean will be more speculative fiction, including an anthology from Filipino authors, more comic books, keeping his blog hopping and perhaps even another novel. Now that is certainly something fantastic.

His writing awards include eight Don Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature—most recently the Grand Prize for Novel in 2005 for Salamanca (Ateneo Press, 2006)—and the Manila Critics’ Circle National Book Award for the acclaimed graphic novel Siglo: Freedom. He is an advocate of the literature of the fantastic, recently editing the first volume of Philippine Speculative Fiction (Kestrel, 2005), as well as a comic book creator (The Lost, ab ovo, and the grafiction anthology Siglo: Passion) and an inveterate blogger. Alfar is also an entrepreneur—running two businesses, the pet store Petty Pets and the integrated marketing company Kestrel IMC. He lives in Manila with his wife Nikki and their daughter Sage.

It goes beyond the eight Palanca Awards he’s won, or the fact that his wife Nikki won her own Palanca this year (third in Short Story for Children).
BEOWULF ( epic history told by Charles Kennedy)
4:54 PM | Author: NOVEL SURFER
Beowulf
By. Charles W. Kennedy


Classification

Beowulf is an epic history told by Charles W. Kennedy it tells about the heroic story of a person whose name Beowulf. It is also an Epic because it is a long poem treating a heroic theme. Beowulf became hero when he defeated Grendel and his mother and lastly the dragon according to protect the land of Denmark. Beowulf has supernatural ability to produce supernatural power which is his strength that kills all his enemy, his strength is equivalent of 18 person’s strength he fight the monster without using sword or weapon.
He story are very interesting because it gives us more lessons on how to love your country as what Beowulf did, he fought against Monster and dragon because he love his kingdom and his people. The action that he made and how he won the great fight are the parts of the story which made it more interesting.


Purpose

The story wrote by Charles Kennedy serves us many purposes; first it gives moral lessons to us and it tells how the story represents its era's and its author dominant cultural or personal values. And how those values relate to attitudinal and definitional concepts of right and wrong, good and evil, morality and immorality etc.; how the plot and characters represent how people should or should not act and lastly the story and its culture's effect on our own cultural and personal values.
The Author define heroism in this story and he tell us about the definition of bad and good in the story where Grendel and his mother are bad in the story and Beowulf which is the good and hero in he story. The story gives more knowledge about the past and how Beowulf became a hero during that time. The purpose of the story was merely implied, it is not stated because through the story itself or the essence of the story we can understand and know the purposes of the whole story. The poem aims to set forth the Authors both beliefs and teach lessons because the Author believe the monster and dragons which he made to give it life in the story even in real life I possibly not and the lesson in the story about the characteristics of a person how they deal their attitude in the story and also the characteristics of Beowulf as a hero.


Plot

The story was made clearly and it is easy for me to understand the situation, but sometimes we encountered little problem about some words being used because it used old English language and we are studying new English language but it is very colorful and interesting story. the plot connecting with its story background or theme and the word and sentence that being use was also connected with each other, it means that the story is focusing about the story in it, and for us to understand the whole story the lines of a story was being modify clearly for us to understand the whole story, since it is edited version it is easy for us to understand from the original text.
There are improbabilities in he story which gives more interesting and more enjoyable for the readers. Like, Grendel and his mother and the dragon where the enemies of Beowulf, the monster has been distinguished by he author so that the story became more interesting even there no facts or truth about the monster and dragons in real life.
The story is obviously borrowed by the Author, first the author of original story was unknown because twas written during the time of Aglo – saxon era. And if we noticed the story became short in fact the original story was made long even it is short story epic. And the writer or Editor add some words but the essence of the story are the same, it twas edited because people was hardly to understand the whole story from original text not because of its words or lines but because the story was made very long.

Characters

The story is composed of many characters that stated in the story and give life the story. Only the main characters were mentioned by name, like Beowulf he was distinguished in the story and more about his life and personality. Also King Hrothgar the king of Denmark which Beowulf fought against his enemies likes Grendel and his mother and lastly the Dragon. The author emphasized them as part of character in the story even they are monster yet they where stated as the best enemy of Beowulf and they had a big part in the story.
The Author describe the characters appearance, like Beowulf he was describe as he strongest man and Grendel was distinguish as a monster with his mother and they are ugly and scary appearance or superficial appearance . And all characters encounter suffering in the story.

Settings

The story started in Denmark where King Hrothgar reigns. At the hall of Heorot where Grendel first attack the soldiers and eat them and where the high point of the story begin. The setting was first described very well and emphasized he events or happening on this place. Where also Beowulf fought against Grendel was lost his hands because Beowullf grab it until it separate from grendels body.
Beowulf gives all his strength to defeats all monsters. Only the hall of Heorot where the story focused or the climax of the story focused. Another setting when Grendel mother attacked and took revenge because his son was died and Beowulf again fought her under the sea where also the setting of the story but it was not so emphasized
There are descriptions of nature in the story like, when Beowulf was sailing going to Hrothgar kingdom there are nature has been stated like, hills, seacliffs and etc. the Author describe the nature specifically so that the story became more colorful. The Author didn’t general terms to mentioned naure.


Contrast


The Author states the contrast in the story where we can find how it is done and how the story all about. The example of contrasts in he story where a defeat followed by a victory, when Beowulf fought against Grendel and he injured Grendel by grabbing his hand and took it off from his body.
That was the moment where his victory with Grendel almost near. There was another contrast after his victory against Grendel they celebrate and they enjoyed his victory and that was also the time when Grendel mother attacked and again the victory against Grendel mother committed.
Another contrast when he fought with the dragon for the last time but he lost his life after all his victory at last he died because dragon bites his neck causing him to death.


Style

The author has different style in making the story or poem, it was made into direct and short where the reader can easily understood the whole story, it was made simple and very interesting. The author used some words which are related the story, the word are prominent and polish like barrow, guerdon and mere this words are look unfamiliar but yet it is used to make the story unique. There are also some words which are very flowing like god over and over again, swan road for sea and foamy break for the waves in the sea.
LES MISERABLES by Victor Hugo
4:48 PM | Author: NOVEL SURFER

i. INTRODUCTION:

AUTHOR: Victor-Marie Hugo
Novelist, poet, and dramatist, the most important of French Romantic writers. In his preface to his historical play CROMWELL (1827) Hugo wrote that romanticism is the liberalism of literature. Hugo developed his own version of the historical novel, combining concrete, historical details with vivid, melodramatic, even feverish imagination. Among his best-known works are The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Les Misérables. Victor-Marie Hugo was born in Besançon as the son of Joseph-Léopold-Sigisbert Hugo and Sophie Trébuchet. Hugo's father was an officer in Napoleon's army, an enthusiastic republican and ruthless professional soldier, who loved dangers and adventures. After the marriage of his parents had collapsed, he was raised by his mother. In 1807 Sophie took her family for two years from Paris to Italy, where Léopold served as a governor of a province near Naples. When General Hugo took charge of three Spanish provinces, Sophie again joined her husband. Sophie's lover, General Victor Lahorie, her husband's former Commandin Officer, was shot in 1812 by a firing-squad for plotting against Napoleon. Victor Hugo took seventeen years to write Les Miserables, his vast fresco of individual and collective destinies, which was published in 1862 when he was sixty years old. The novel is the parallel story of the redemption of Jean Valjean and France-and to a larger extent, the story of humanity's political and social progress.


CHARACTERS:


Jean Valjean – as Father Madeleine, Monsieur Leblanc, Ultimus Fauchelevent he is the lead cast of the story, a guy of strength and is sent to jail for theft.
Javert - A policeman who bears an uncanny resemblance to a wolf. Javert obeys the letter of the law and gives no mercy to offenders. He serves as a nemesis.
Fantine – She returns to her home village to find work and on the way entrusts her child Cosette, to the Thenardiers. She was died from tuberculosis.
Cosette - Fantine’s daughter who suffers under Eponine’s parents. She grows up in the Thenardiers but after many years, Jean Valjean take away her to the Thernardiers.
Marius - leaves his grandfather and lived in poverty and fell in love with Cosette and was the loved friend of Eponine.
Eponine - eldest child of Monsieur and Madame Thénardier and had a crush on Marius.
Bishop Myriel - bishop of Digne province who prevents his arrest and redeems Valjean.
Baron Pontmercy - bears a large scar on his cheek from a wound.
Monsieur Thénadier – dishonest traitor and father of Eponine.
Gavroche: The oldest son of the Thénardiers and brother of Eponine.
Madame Thénardier – Terror of Cosette and mother of Eponine. She bears five children but only cares for her two daughters Eponine and Azelma
Father Mabeuf - brother of Baron Pontmercy.
Monsieur Gillenormand – grandfather of Marius.

ii. BODY:


At the beginning, Bishop of Digne changed from well-off to a loyal religious person. He was from a rich family who lived a commendable life loyal to joy. From the written work, Valjean who stole a loaf of bread was troubled by ex-worshippers.

In contrast to the movie and musical; it began with Valjean and prisoners in rigid work with Javert as the inspector. Valjean had much strength in him which was his trademark.

While in the written work, it began with change from Charles Francois-Bievenu Myriel and the rigid work was not specified.

It was thought of in the novel that it is clear that Valjean could steal anything, even from the Bishop. Valjean represents the corruption and injustices of the French government by the punishment he got for stealing just a loaf of bread.

· The theft of Valjean was not revealed in the movie and musical but in the written work, it is mentioned. Valjean went out as mad that he was cheated instead of going out of prison peacefully.

· Valjean was discarded and no one seems to give him a chance and this act was not shown in the movie and in the musical. It is clear that he stole the silver from the bishop. In the movie and novel it was revealed how he has stolen goods from the Bishop yet in the musical, it was not shown.

The Thenardiers cheated Fantine even if they were in the same status by getting the money without letting Cosette live a happy life. They were thieves in the life of Fantine.

· In the written work, it was not affirmed that Fantine became a prostitute. But in the Musical and Movie, it was clearly shown as a bad part of her life.
· And the carrying of the cart happened first before her prostitution.
· The locket was not sold by Fantine but it was given to Cosette while in the musicale, it was sold by Fantine for 10 franks with her hair.
· In musicale, the death of Fantine, Javert is absent but in the movie Javert fought with Jean Valjean and was one of the reasons for Fantines death.
· There is no feeding in the musicale.
Javert was mandated by system and offers to leave his work he believes that he has aborted the scheme. There is no longer any doubt about Madeleine’s true identity. The chapter is devoted to Valjean’s inner struggle as to whether he should reveal himself and forsake the town for the sake of everyone.
I had noticed that in chapter “Marius” It was detailed, it has so many happenings on Marius life before he meets Cosette. In the novel there is a highlight in the life of Marius. In the movie, Marius appears when Cosette had grown up and became a lady.
The chapter “Marius” the pages are thick; there is a discussion about Marius. Marius’ discussions with the student group make him aware of the divisions that exist in Paris.
It is rewarding to see the reunion between Marius and his grandfather. Even though the old man has not changed his political views, his love for his grandson allows him to overcome that obstacle and help Marius in all of his endeavors. Even Valjean hides his sorrow of having lost Coseete’s love to Marius and feigns happiness over the couple’s forthcoming marriage and gives them a very sizeable present.
· In the movie Eponine did not join Marius while in musical, Eponine joined him;
· and another is that no letter was given at the movie after Marius assembles Cosette but in the musicale it was given after. (not in the book)
Javert has come to a turning point in his life. He has always gone after the law and knew accurately what to do and what was considered to be right and wrong. By allowing Valjean to walk away as a free man, he has done something contrary to the law and is no longer able to function and live. The only left for him to do is to commit suicide.

· The death of Valjean was not shown in the movie and musicale while in the novel he was departed.
It is satisfying to realize that all the misunderstandings between Jean Valjean and Cosette and Marius are resolved and that his behavior is finally understood by the ones whose love he so desperately needs. He is now finally able to forgive himself and dies in peace.




iii. CONCLUSION:

I conclude that there is nothing wrong if there are a number of changes in the movie, musicale and in novel because I’m aware of it and it happens all the point in time, there are some exaggerations that will come up, I experience it more frequently in the others too, but I could not deny the fact that I was a little disappointed variously of it.

Like for example, in the book and musicale; Eponine was present on it while in the movie she didn’t appear; it would be acceptable if she is not really one of he main cast but sadly as I though read the Les Mesirables and watch the musicale she is important cast and that made one of the reasons why I was disappointed in it.

Another is in the last part, It is sometimes vague because in the musicale and movie, Jean Valjean was not dead and besides he was just set free with Javert, yet in he novel he is dead, it felt sad as a reader because it is unclear if were would we pursue.

There are so many changes that had happened like theirs no feeding in the musicale, Eponine’s expression of love for Marius, in the movie Eponine did not join Marius while in musical, Eponine joined him, and another is that no letter was given at the movie after Marius assemble Cosette but in the musicale, it was given after. (not in the book)
It is quite depressing to observe that the befallen Valjean and the deterioration of his body and soul. One wonders how the two people who owe their lives to this man, allow this to occur and don’t show compassion.
In musicale, the death of Fantine, Javert is absent but in the movie Javert fought with Jean Valjean and was one of the reasons for Fantines death.

It is quite surprising to see this change in Javert’s behavior toward Valjean. The biggest surprise when Valjean is free because Javert realizes and then gone into suicide.

I enjoyed reading, comparing and analyzing each of it.



Difficult Words:
· Humbug = something devoid of sense or meaning; nonsense: a humbug of technical jargon.
· Vagabond = leading an unsettled or carefree life. wandering from place to place without any settled home; nomadic: a vagabond tribe.
· Chafing = to become worn or sore from rubbing: His neck began to chafe from the starched collar.
· Cabriolet = a light, two-wheeled, one-horse carriage with a folding top, capable of seating two persons. an automobile resembling a coupe but with a folding top.
· Façade = a superficial appearance or illusion of something: They managed somehow to maintain a facade of wealth.
· Chimera = (often initial capital letter ) a mythological, fire-breathing monster, commonly represented with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail.
· Feeblenesses = impartment
· Pinnace = a light sailing ship, esp. one formerly used in attendance on a larger ship.
· Fiacre = a small horse-drawn carriage.
· Opaqueness = not transparent or translucent; impenetrable to light; not allowing light to pass through, not transmitting radiation, sound, heat, etc.
· Indemnity = protection or security against damage or loss.

I. LIFE OF AUTOR

William Shakespeare (baptised 26 April 156423 April 1616) was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[1] He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "The Bard"). His surviving works consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18 he married Anne Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between 1585 and 1592 he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of the playing company the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, where he died three years later. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others.[3]
Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1590 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the sixteenth century. Next he wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest examples in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime, and in 1623, two of his former theatrical colleagues published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's.
Shakespeare was a respected poet and playwright in his own day, but his reputation did not rise to its present heights until the nineteenth century. The Romantics, in particular, acclaimed Shakespeare's genius, and the Victorians hero-worshipped Shakespeare with a reverence that George Bernard Shaw called "bardolatry".[4] In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are consistently performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts


Early life

William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, a successful glover and alderman originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer. He was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised on 26 April 1564. His unknown birthday is traditionally observed on 23 April, St George's Day. This date, which can be traced back to an eighteenth-century scholar's mistake, has proved appealing because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616.[7] He was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter of a mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but the curriculum was dictated by law throughout England, and the school would have provided an intensive education in Latin grammar and the classics. At the age of 18, Shakespeare married the 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. Two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds the next day as surety that there were no impediments to the marriage. The couple may have arranged the ceremony in some haste, since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times. Anne's pregnancy could have been the reason for this. Six months after the marriage, she gave birth to a daughter, Susanna, who was baptised on 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years later and were baptised on 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried on 11 August 1596.
After the birth of the twins, there are few historical traces of Shakespeare until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. Because of this gap, scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare’s first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching. Another eighteenth-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported that Shakespeare had been a country schoolmaster. Some twentieth-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. No evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death.]
Sources: http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Shakespeare
http://www.shakespeare-online.com/


I. CLASSIFICATION

Merchant of Venice is on the famous Shakespeare’s comedies, It is classified into comedy because the main focus of the story is to entertain people, to make people happy and to create humors.
Merchant of Venice also focus about love story and marriage, in this story we can easily recognize that it is belong to comedy because there are part in the story that can be found in some act and scenes that can make you laugh and brighten your day. If you read the whole story the story ends happily even though there are trials that the main characters encountered but still at end they committed the victory.
The character in the story performed very well as what role and they have, in acting comedy drama there are only few characters in this story that performed more comedy like Lancelet Gobbo and Shylock, he act as a clown in this story because the center of comedy is from him. In act 2 scene 2, Lancelet and his father Old Gobbo conversation showing the humor of comedy. When Lancelet trying to confused his father that cannot see clearly by pretending as a stranger and not his son. Their conversation showing comedy act and give fun to the reader. Another Act and scene that is fun for me when Shylock pursuing Anotonio to pay hes debt according to the contract they made and signed. As a legal settlement they are going under legal investigation on trial courts, the funny events happened in this scene when shylock lost the case and lost his wealth as well, it can be found in act 4 scene 1 the trial scene.
The whole story not only dealing comedy, but it also focuses on how love works between the characters in the story. This story can be also called comedy love story. Why this is comedy love story? Because there are parts that showing funny scene or events there are also some parts that mostly dealing about love. Example of this love scene, when Bassanio fight his love for Portia against the rich suitor of the beautiful girl, he made everything just to own the girl. He tried his chance and luck to choose among 3 caskets, and if he choose wrong caskets that would change their life into miserable but love is with them because of determination and trust to his self he got the correct caskets and he own the a beautiful girl that he love so much, this scene showing the love story of main characters to each other.
Another love story, when Lorenzo and Jessica, In act 2 scene 6, Jessica escape from his father just to fulfill her need and to follow his feeling to love Lorenzo no matter what happen. Shylock the father of Jessica is against their relationship that’s the reason why they prefer to escape.


II. PLOT

The merchant of Venice is very long story, because it composed of some threads or different stories with in the story but still in is connected at end, the threads are very important in the whole story, the story of Antonio with his company is one another thread from the story of Portia In Belmont, and from the story of Shylock a Jewish money lender.
In Belmont Portia waiting for suitors to be her husband if they luckily choose the right caskets, but most of her suitors failed to choose like prince of morocco and prince of Arragon, and the last person who Bassanio the lucky guy who own Portia, can be found in act 1 scnene 2.
Another threads, about Antonio and Bassanio and their company, they are from Venice and planning to have trip going to Belmont because Bassanio want to own Portia by choosing the caskets, the story of Bassanio and Antonio is different from the story of Portia, it can be found in act 1 scene 1.Another threads, the story of Shylock a Jewish moneylender , Shylock is a pagan and have a daughter named Jessica, Shylock is not so villain in this story but he is considered as one, his character became bad and threat his servants badly. Lancelet a servant of Shylock soon became the servant of Bassanio because Lancelet cant take the attitude of Shylock and he leave it. It can be found in Act 2, scene 2.
The story can be probable according to its contents and can be not, but I choose that the events in the story can be happen or possible to happen, since Venice is a real place in Italy it is one prove that the story can be true. The story telling the real situation that it possible to do bye the people, there is no supernatural events happened in this story that can create confusion to the readers either its true or not. Like Macbeth, the story is impossible because there are supernatural involve though its part of Shakespeare strategy.
The story is vey easy to follow and at the same time it is very interesting story. Comedy which the most people prefer to read, because for them it can help to forget their problems and weary. It is also entertain people and give lot of fun or the readers. The story is easy to understand since it is comedy and love story as well.
The story or play is written to be acted on stage and to be read. But this is more interesting if it play on stage since this is comedy people want to see the action of characters act as comedian. It is more easily for the people to understand if it is play on stage than to read it. The dialogue is written to be spoken by the actors at the same time are amusing, gesturing, picking up objects, weeping and shaking their fist. Some stage action is described in what are called “stage direction”.
There are parts of the story or play that showing stage direction and prove that this story must play on stage. In Act 2 scene 6 line 35, when Jessica says “here catch this casket; it is worth pains” it is clear that she throws a chest of jewels and money from the window of her house. Another scene, in Act 4, scene 1 line 115, during the trial scene Bassanio says “why dost thou whet thy knife so earnestly?” it is clear from Gratiano’s line when he says in line 125” Not on thy sole but on they soul, harsh Jew” Shylock was sharpens his knife on the sole of his shoe.
Merchant of Venice is originally written by William Shakespeare, but the he borrowed several details from Italian story collection, like a poor suitor, a fair lady and a villainous jew and the choosing of chest that Portia inflicts on all suitors, it can be found in Italian story collection. Merchant of Venice was first printed in 1600 as a Quatro but in 1619 someone edited a copy of 1600 quatro to make it bases of second quatro-edition of the play. From 1600 quatro edited into 1619 with unknown editor.
In the story Merchant of Venice there are some words that has changed into modern words, since the original text of this story is written in Old English version it was edited into Modern English but not all words has been change only a few words that are not usually using now. This change help people to understand well the whole story.

III. SETTINGS
In the story the time was not stated when the events supposed to occur, but probably it happens during 16th century. But when we focus in the story we can conclude that the story takes long time in history. There are places mentioned in the story, the famous place mentioned are Venice and Belmont, this places are real and can be found at Italy. Venice in the story where Antonio and Bassiano and Company came from, with their ships they travel going to Belmont for some important reason, For Antonio to travel anywhere is part of his business, Bassanio travel to Belmont to follow his dreams to marry a beautiful woman named Portia.
In Belmont where the Events usually happened, Portia lived and the place where she is also waiting for the lucky guy to marry here, if they pass the test, by choosing the right caskets among the 3, one of the caskets is the future with Potria. It can be found in Act 2 scene 2.
The places mentioned in the story are definitely true, like Venice and Belmond that can be found in Italy. Shakespeare used real places in the story “Merchant of Venice” because people can easily understood if they can figure out the places used in the story as a setting.


IV. CHARACTERS


Character list:
Antonio – A merchant, Antonio’s love for his friend Bassanio prompts him to sign a contract with shylock and almost lose his life. A
Bassanio – A kinsman and dear friend of Antonio. Bassanio’s love for the wealthy Portia leads him to borrow money from shylock with Antonio as his guarantor. Bassanio is an ineffectual businessman but a worthy suitor.
Portia- a wealthy heires rom Belmont, Portia’s beauty is matched only by her intelligence. Bound by a clause of her father’s will that forces her to marry whichever suitors chooses correctly from among three caskets; Portia is nonetheless able to marry her true love, Bassanio. Portia, in the disguise of a young law clerk, saves Antonio from shylock.
Shylock- A Jewish moneylender,. Angered by his mistreatment at the hands of Venice’s Christians, particularly Antonio, shylocks schemes to take revenge by demanding a pund of Antonio’s flesh in a payment a debt.
Jessica- Shyclock’s daughter, Jessica hates life in her father house and elopes with young Christian gentleman, Lorenzo.
Graziano –a friend of Bassanio. A course young man, Graziano is Shylocks most vocl and insulting critic during the trial. Graziano falls in love with and eventually weds Portia lady in waiting, Nerissa.
Nerissa- Portia lady in waiting and confidante. Nerissa marries Graziano and escorts Portia to Venice by deguising her self law clerk.
Lancelot Gobbo- Bassanio servant. A comical, clownish, running figure, Lancelot leaves Shylock service in order to work or Bassanio.
Old Gobbo- Lancelot’s father. Old Gobbo is a servant in venicew
Salerio – a Venetian gentleman and friend to Antonio , Bassanio, and Lorenzo, Salerio escorts the newly weds Jessica and Lorenzo to Belmont, and returns with Bassanio and Graziano for Antonio’s trial. He is often almost indistinguishable from his companion Solanio.
Solanio- A venetian gentlemen. Solanio is a frequent companion to Salerio.
Lorenzo – A friend of Bassanio’s and Antonio’s. He is inlove with Jessica Shylock daughter.
For me the characters is clearly distinguished in the story “ merchant of Venice” and all characters has been identify according to their role and it is easy to identify them by the readers.
All characters in the story occupy the chief place; they act well according to their given role. They entertain people and give life to the story. The men occupy the story as men, and doing role as men and brave as men. The women also act as a women, in the story Portia has many suitor and at the end Bassanio and Portia got married this is showing that the characters doing their task as what they are in the story.
Ruskin says; Shakespeare has no Heroes, he has only heroines. It is true, Shakespeare story give more emphasize to the women as his heroine, in the story Merchant of Venice Portia and Nerissa is consider as the Heroines of Antonio from Shylock during the trial. In this scene Portia and Nerissa disguise as the legal expert and the legal clerk, both Portia and nerissa do their job as a heroines. Antonio saved from Shylock and his life is now free from debt. It can be found in Act 4 scene 1.
There are characters in the story that are Humorous, example:
Lancelet- He is clown in the story, he make the story more fun and comedy. In act 2 scene 2 when Lancelet makes fun with his father Gobbo, this scene Lancelet shows his personality as a comedian. He confuses his father by pretending not Lancelet.
Shylock– Known as villain in the story, he is also acting humorous situation. Like in Act 3 scenes 1, during the conversation of Shylock and Tubal, Shylock also making fun with his thoughts. He is so happy knowing the news about Antonio ship wreck. In act 4 scene 1, the story became more interesting at this scene. During the trial Shylock don’t give up the right he have, to take his part from Antonio as part of their agreement. He will cut one of the Antonio’s body. But at the end of the trial Shylock lose.
In the story “Merchant of Venice” there is only one character which is developing, he change from bad to good. In act 4 scene 1, during the trial Shylock lose against Antonio, as a punishment Shylock well become a Christian, this changes help him to became good person from what he is before. The other character is remaining as what they are, only they suffer changes from fortune or they are still stationary.

V. STRUCTURE

The principal Character in the story “The Merchant of Venice “ are Antonio, Bassanio and their company, Shyclock, Portia and his company. This character is very important in the story, without them the story would not completely state.
In part of Antonio and Bassanio, they travel going to Belmont for important purpose, this purpose well be the accomplishment of the story, because Bassanio want to marry the Girl name Portia, he will try his luck to choose among 3 caskets, and this is the reason why they will travel to Belmont, because Bassanio don’t have money to won against Portia’s suitor he asked for help from Antonio, since Antonio don’t money to give to Bassanio because his money was in his ship who are traveling from any direction of the world, he told Bassanio to find money lender and he will be the Guarantor. Shylock at this scene is the moneylender, and soon became the villain of the story. They borrowed money from shylock with agreement, if they cant pay with in 3 months, He will take one part of Antonio’s body.
In Belmont where Portia lived, She is waiting for someone to be her husband, in part of the story the accomplishment of this, if Bassanio choose the right casket and he will became the Husband of Portia which is Portia dreamed.
major conflict · Antonio defaults on a loan he borrowed from Shylock, wherein he promises to sacrifice a pound of flesh. It can be found in act 1. Scene 3

rising action · Antonio’s ships, the only means by which he can pay off his debt to Shylock, are reported lost at sea. Can be found in Act 3, when tubal reported it to Shylock that Antonio cargo shipwrecked.

climax · Portia, disguised as a man of law, intervenes on Antonio’s behalf.

Can be found in act 3, scene 4 line 65-80, they disguised their self as a boy. A legal expert and a legal expert clerk.

falling action · Shylock is ordered to convert to Christianity and bequeath his possessions to Lorenzo and Jessica; Portia and Nerissa persuade their husbands to give up their rings. Can be found in act4 scene 1 line 400-405, when shylock lose the case and became a Christian as punishment.

VI. CONTRAST

In the story “The Merchant of Venice” there are contrasting scene, contrast between two person who are different in action and occupations. The contrast where the defeat is closely followed by a victory, in the story there are contrasting scene happened.
The contrast between Christian and the Jew, Christian which is Antonio and his company and the Jew which is Shylock, there characteristics of being Christian is different from a Jew, Shylock became the villain of the story his character as a person is different from Antonio and other people who are Christian in the story.
Another contrast between Bassanio and the rich suitors of Portia, They are both suitor of Portia but the different is, Bassanio is not rich while the Other suitor of Portia are rich, but at end Bassanio won Portia.
The most popular contrast, when the defeat is closely followed by a victory. In act 4 scene 1 during the trial, Antonio is closely to defeat against Shylock, he almost lose the case and his life is in danger under Shylock. But at the end Antonio won the case and free from danger accusation and punishment of Shylock.
Allied to the contrast is the principle of parallelism, or introducing characters or incedents that are similar in many respects. Example, Bassanio’s wooing is paralleled by Gratiano’s and both won their wives by the same lol, both receive rings and both gave them away.


VII. STYLE


The language is appropriate in the story, it is original language used by William Shakespeare, and he used old English in the story in its original text. Old English used some words which are no longer used in modern world, Modern English is different from old English that’s why some readers cant easily understand some word, but because of some editor and author they translate the story into modern English in order for the reader to read it and understand it clearly.
In the story “ Merchant of Venice” there are Biblical style that can be found in play, in act 1 scene 3 line 70, Shylock said to Antonio
When Jacob grazed his uncle Laban's sheep—
70
This Jacob from our holy Abram was,
As his wise mother wrought in his behalf,
The third possessor, ay, he was the third—

In line 85-95 Shylock said,
No, not take interest—not as you would say
75
Directly interest. Mark what Jacob did:
When Laban and himself were compromised
That all the eanlings which were streaked and pied
Should fall as Jacob's hire, the ewes, being rank,
In the end of autumn turnèd to the rams.
80
And when the work of generation was
Between these woolly breeders in the act,
The skillful shepherd peeled me certain wands.
And in the doing of the deed of kind
He stuck them up before the fulsome ewes,
85
Who then conceiving did in eaning time
Fall parti-colored lambs—and those were Jacob's.
This was a way to thrive, and he was blessed.
And thrift is blessing, if men steal it not.

He compares the Jacob life which can only be found in the Bible and situation to their situation now.
In the story “Merchant of Venice” Shakespeare used dictions and phrases which are no longer found or used today. This diction and phrases is written in old English.
Ex:
Misconstered – means “ misunderstoon" it is found in act 2, scene 2, line 190. Said by Bassanio
to Gratiano “ I be misconstered in the place I got to”
“ How say you by” – when we look this phrase we can say that this is wrong grammar, it is no
longer today because it is written in old English and no one used it in sentence. The meaning of this phrase is “ what do you see about”. It is said by Nerissa to Portia in act 1, scene 2, line 55. “ how you say you by the frence lord, Monsiour le Bon?”
Gramercy - means “thank you”, said by Bassanio to Gobbo found in act 2, scene 2, line 120.
“Gramecy. Wouldst thou aught with me”.
Methoughts – means “ I thought” said by Shylock to Antonio in act 1, scene 3, line 75.
“metoughts you said you neither lend nor borrow upon advantage”
Was wont to call – Means “ used to call” said by Shylock to Salarino in Act 3 scene 1 line 45.“He was wont to call me asurer”
Hindered me –means “ kept me from making” said by Shylock to Salarino in Act 3 scene 1.
“he hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million”

VIII. COMPARATIVE STUDY

In comparative study, I compare Merchant of Venice into Macbeth. The story has more difference with each other between tragedy and comedy. In Macbeth the story focus on tragedy which the character encounter different kinds of trials and difficulties in their life, while the Merchant of Venice is comedy which is there’s humor in the story even they encounter trials. In the story Macbeth, there are supernatural in the scene with in the story, like the appearance of Banquo as Ghost and the 3 witches in the story. In Merchant of Venice we cannot find supernatural in the scene. For me Merchant of Venice is more interesting than Macbeth because its dealing with Humorous comedy and it is easy to follow every scene in the story. In Macbeth the story contains of more characters than the story of Merchant of Venice, but still the story is very interesting and the contents of the story seems to be the most beautiful among works of William Shakespeare. The story of Macbeth at the first scene it showing the real tragedy, in the opening scene the battle between Scots and Norwegians Invaders which is described in harrowing terms by the wounded captain in Act I, scene ii. The story of Macbeth is more seriously than the story of Merchant of Venice. While in Merchant of Venice the Opening scene introducing the main characters by revealing their plans to Belmont, in this scene there are few Humors but still this is important in the story. In the story both the characters had important role in the story and both characters have its own important parts. The settings of the two stories between Macbeth and Merchant of Venice have different settings, and this settings help the story became more colorful.
IX. COLLATERAL READING
The story Merchant of Venice is a study in inversion for the Newman, because in early modern England “A women occupying the positions of lawyer in a Renaissance Venetian Courtroom, in the story Portia and Nerissa became the lawyer and lawyer clerk in the story during the trial of Antonio in Act 4 scene 1. The play in this term resists the traffic in women and interrogates the Elizabethan sex/gender system.
During 6th century, trading system from place to place using their Galleon is very common; this is the lifestyle of the people during this era. William Shakespeare bases his story from the life style of the people during that time, Venice known also as the place of Merchant.
In the story, the Jewish religion and Christian religion has given emphasize, since this era Christian and Jew has a conflict with each other, we can see in the story how Jewish people tolerate the Christian people or on how they tolerating each other. In Act 4 scene 1 during trial, showing how bad the Jewish are, especially Shylock, he don’t even give chance or mercy to Antonio take his self against punishment and pay by money. In Jewish side shylock centers initially on the question of the plays Anti-Semitism, the history of the Jewish people during this era, Ben-Jasson chronicles a thousand year period of Jewish history, including the middle ages and the English Renaissance throughout this epoch, Jewish people lived under rule of Christianity and Islam.